Since the U. Although free from the Kafkaesque struggles of their native land, the Iranians must remain anonymous in order to protect themselves. As a first-generation Swiss woman, she began using photography to examine the cultural codes of both the East and the West. Between and , Rasti made ten trips to the city to photograph men and women driven to hide in plain sight.
The title was inspired by the words of former Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad at a speech given at Columbia University on September 24, Rasti shares her experiences making this work, offering insights on how to photograph invisible people with compassion, dignity, and respect. Most of the time the pressure of the family which is more difficult than anything else.
Because Iran does not recognise homosexuality, the government considers gays and lesbians to be transgender, creating a prejudice in both sides. While trans people in Iran are not acting illegally, they are considered to have a mental illness gender identity disorder and the cure is the sex reassignment surgery. In a paradoxical way, this helped the LGBTQI community to take advantage of the situation and make their voice heard with the help of the Internet. They are not all in Iran as they flee the country.
The idea of the book came quite naturally. I always do interviews before taking photographs, and I was accumulating a lot of pictures and accounts. The book includes 40 portraits, a selection of landscapes and home interiors, and four interviews in both Farsi and English.
I thought it would make sense to a book that can be read by Iranians, and by people in the west. In the beginning, I was trying to find people who would agree to show their face. I had to respect this because anonymity was still the best protection.
Even if they are no longer living in Iran, their families do not know their sexual identity. I realised that I had to deal with this photographically and find a way to capture each individual's identity without showing their face. I never knew myself what we would exactly do during the shoot. I was always looking for new ways to hide their face but I also wanted to make sure that we could represent their individual identities. We would meet several times before we would shoot, doing an interview that would help me know more about their lives and personalities.
Men and youths depicted on a Safavid ceramic panel from Chehel Sotoun , Isfahan. Since the Revolution , the legal code has been based on Islamic law. All sexual activities that occur outside a traditional, heterosexual marriage i. Same-sex sexual activities that occur between consenting adults are criminalized and carry a maximum punishment of death—though not generally implemented.
Forced same-sex sexual activities i. The death penalty is legal for those above 18, and if a murder was committed, legal at the age of Approved by the Parliament on July 30, , and finally ratified by the Guardian Council on November 28, , articles through distinctly deal with same-sex sexual activities and their punishments in detail.
If the participants are adults, of sound mind and consenting, the method of execution is for the judge to decide. If one person is non-consenting i. A non-adult who engages in consensual sodomy is subject to a punishment of 74 lashes.
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Articles to assert that sodomy is proved either if a person confesses four times to having committed sodomy or by the testimony of four righteous men. Testimony of women alone or together with a man does not prove sodomy. According to Articles and , if sodomy, or any lesser crime referred to above, is proved by confession and the person concerned repents, the judge may request that he be pardoned.
If a person who has committed the lesser crimes referred to above repents before the giving of testimony by the witnesses, the punishment is quashed. The judge may punish the person for lesser crimes at his discretion. If the act is repeated three times and punishment is enforced each time, the death sentence will apply on the fourth occasion. Article asserts that the ways of proving female same-sex sexual activity in court are the same as for sodomy.
Article says that both Muslims and non-Muslims are subject to the punishment.haucukesil.gq
Intimate photos explore Iran’s hidden gay community | Dazed
According to Articles and , the rules for the quashing of sentences, or for pardoning, are the same as for the lesser male homosexual offenses. According to Article , women who "stand naked under one cover without necessity" and are not relatives may receive a punishment of 50 lashes. As Article 20 in Clause 14 states, a person who has done a sex reassignment surgery can legally change their name and gender on the birth certification upon the order of court.
Those who are in favor of legitimately being able to reassign one's sex surgically utilize article of Iran's civil code, stating that the acts of every person should be subject to rational benefit, meaning gender reassignment surgery would be in the best interest of whomever is appealing for governmental support.
Caveats, however, include the need to have medical approval from a doctor that supports a dissonance between assigned gender and their true gender. At the discretion of the Iranian court, fines, prison sentences, and corporal punishment are usually carried out rather than the death penalty, unless the crime was a rape.
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The charges of same-sex sexual activity have in a few occasions been used in political crimes. Other charges had been paired with the sodomy crime, such as rape or acts against the state, and convictions are obtained in grossly flawed trials. On March 14, , famous dissident writer Ali Akbar Saidi Sirjani was charged with offenses ranging from drug dealing to espionage to homosexual activity. He died in prison under disputed circumstances. Some human rights activists and opponents of the government in Iran claim between 4, and 6, gay men and lesbians have been executed in Iran for crimes related to their sexual orientation since In a November meeting with his British counterpart, Iranian member of parliament Mohsen Yahyavi admitted that the government in Iran believes in the death penalty for homosexuality.
According to Yahyavi, gays deserve to be tortured, executed, or both. Ten to fifteen percent of executions in Iran are for rape. The rape victim may settle the case by accepting compensation jirat in exchange for withdrawing the charges or forgiving the rapist. A woman can also receive diyya for injuries sustained. Normally, the rapist still faces tazir penalties, such as lashes and jail time for immoral acts, and often faces further penalties for other crimes committed alongside the rape, such as kidnapping, assault, and disruption of public order.
LGBT rights in Iran
On July 19, , two teenagers from the province of Khorasan who were convicted by the court of having raped a year-old boy were publicly hanged. Another controversial execution was that of Makwan Moloudzadeh on December 6, As a year-old, he was ineligible for the death penalty under the law in Iran. On March 15, , the daily newspaper Etemad reported that the Tehran Criminal Court sentenced two men to death following the discovery of a video showing them engaged in sexual acts. Another two men were allegedly hanged publicly in the northern town of Gorgan for sodomy in November An on-line petition for their release began to circulate around the internet.
There were two reported crackdowns in Isfahan , Iran's third-largest city. On May 10, , Isfahan police arrested 87 people at a birthday party, including 80 suspected gay men, beating and detaining them through the weekend. Those who remained in custody were believed to have been wearing women's clothing.
In April , 30 men were arrested in a raid in Isfahan Province , "charged with sodomy, drinking alcohol and using psychedelic drugs". In Islam, the term mukhannathun "effeminate ones" is used to describe gender-variant people, usually transgender people who are transitioning from male to female. Neither this term nor the equivalent for "eunuch" occurs in the Quran , but the term does appear in the Hadith , the sayings of Muhammad, which have a secondary status to the central text.
Moreover, within Islam, there is a tradition on the elaboration and refinement of extended religious doctrines through scholarship. While Iran has outlawed homosexual activity, Iranian Shia thinkers such as Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini have allowed for transsexuals to reassign their sex so that they can enter heterosexual relationships. This position has been confirmed by the current Supreme Leader of Iran , Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , and is also supported by many other Iranian clerics.
Intimate photos explore Iran’s hidden gay community
The state will pay a portion of the cost for a gender reassignment operation. Since the mids, the Iranian government has legalized the practice of sex reassignment surgery under medical approval and the modification of pertinent legal documents to reflect the reassigned gender. In , Khomeini passed a fatwa allowing gender reassignment operations as a cure for "diagnosed transsexuals", allowing for the basis of this practice becoming legal. Hojatoleslam Kariminia, a mid-level Islamic cleric in Iran, is another advocate for transsexual rights, having called publicly for greater respect for the rights of Iranian transsexuals.
However, transsexuality is still a taboo topic within Iranian society, and no laws exist to protect post-operative transsexuals from discrimination. In order for the two to be in an open relationship, Sahar considers surgery to work within the confines of law which permits relationships after transitioning due to the relationship being between a male and female. Same-sex marriage and civil union are not legally recognized in Iran. Traditional Iranian families often exercise strong influence in who, and when, their children marry and even what profession they chose.
No legislation exists to address discrimination or bias motivated violence on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Traditional Iranian families tend to prohibit their children from dating, as it is not a part of Iranian culture, although this has become somewhat more tolerated, among liberals. Gay Iranian couples are often afraid to be seen together  in public, and report that LGBT people were widely stereotyped as being sex-obsessed child molesters, rapists, and diseased ridden.
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In , a book entitled Witness Play by Cyrus Shamisa was banned from shelves despite being initially approved because it said that certain notable Persian writers were homosexuals or bisexuals. In , the government in Iran loaned an Iranian collection of artwork that was locked away since the Revolution by the Tate Britain gallery for six months.